By way of abhinaya, a dancer can seize the nuances, offered the subtext is grasped
Think about the well-known Telugu padam, ‘Indendu Vachitivira’ (Suratti), which offers with a girl confronting the untrue Muvvagopala at her doorstep. In accordance with the abhinaya legend Kalanidhi Narayanan, the dominant feelings within the lyrics are of khandita — anger laced with sarcasm — and hasya — humour — upon which different feelings of shock, compassion, disgust, and so forth., perhaps layered. On additional evaluation, we will determine the protagonist — Dr. Anupama Kylash calls her a khandita samanya, an offended courtesan (one whose firm is on the market for a consideration). “The therapy will probably be totally different for each classification and with extra understanding, a dancer’s interpretation will turn into extra nuanced,” noticed the Vilasini Natyam and Kuchipudi artist and scholar.
Anupama was delivering a chat, ‘Protagonists in Indian Textual and Literary Traditions — The Hero, Heroine and Companion,’ at a session hosted by dancer Divya Ravi on Instagram Dwell. This was a part of her Sangati sequence on varied facets associated to bounce together with physique kinetics, solo productions, vitamin, spirituality, decoding musicality in dance, de-constructing sahitya, and the Music Trinity.
Dr. Anupama defined the premise first. The Indian literary traditions — consisting of kavyas together with poems, prose and natakas (dance, drama and music), itihasas such because the Ramayana, Mahabharata, and so forth., puranas such because the Bhagavata Purana, Agnipuran, and so forth., prabandhas, pada sahitya similar to Jayadeva’s Gita Govinda, Annamacharya’s sankirtanas, et al — have offered all kinds of heroes and heroines. The Indian Textual Traditions analysed such works of literature. They’re: the Natya Sastra written by Bharatha Muni (2BC-2AD), Rasa Manjari by Bhanudatta (seventeenth C), Sringara Manjari by Akbar Shah (seventeenth C), Sringara Prakasam by Raja Bhoja (10-Eleventh C) and Ujjvala Nilamani by Rupa Goswamin of the Krishna Bhakti sect (sixteenth C), amongst others. They handled facets of Natya, dramaturgy, and Alankara Sastras, aesthetics and poetics, which included the staging of performs, rasa idea and evaluation of poetry, language, characterisations, and so forth.
Dr. Anupama referenced three texts for the classifications — Natya Sastra, Rasa Manjari and Sringara Manjari. In accordance with her, the traditional Natya Sastra had a fundamental classification for all characters and facets of a efficiency — Uttama (superior), Madhyama (center) Adhama (inferior). Feminine characters (nayikas) have been categorised in accordance with totally different parameters — in accordance with their beginning and place — Divya (celestial), Adivya (human), Nrpatni (queen) and Ganika (courtesan); in accordance with their social standing — Kulaja (spouse), Kanyaka (single) and Vesya (courtesan); in accordance with 23 character traits, silas — Go Sila or cow sort (plump hips, variety, respectful), Naga Sila or snake sort (pointed nostril, slender physique, irritable, deceitful), and so forth.
Bharata Muni additionally offered eight avasthas (states) for a girl in love. The Ashtavidha Nayikavasthas are: Vaasakasajja (one dressed up for union), Virahotkhandita (one distressed by separation), Svaadhina-Bhartrka (one having her husband in subjection), Kalahantarita (one separated from her lover by a quarrel), Khandita (one enraged together with her lover), Vipralabdha (one deceived by her lover), Prositabhartrka (one with a sojourning husband) and Abhisaarika (one who goes out to fulfill her lover). Rasa Manjari and others broaden the idea of the Abhisarika — Jyotsnaabhisarika (one who goes in moonlight camouflaged in white and pearls), Tamisrabhisarika (one who goes out in darkness camouflaged in darkish colored garments and blue sapphires), Divasabhisarika (one who goes out in broad daylight) and so forth. Dr. Anupama needed to underline the truth that any nayika can expertise any of the eight conditions. It’s not an unique classification as is assumed by some.
The Agnipuran categorised Sringara nayikas within the context of their relationship with the nayaka — Swakiya or Sweeya (married and dependable), Parakeeya (married to at least one and longs for an additional), Punarbhu (widow remarried) and Samanya (those that are free to just accept any man with out restrictions). This classification grew to become standard as it’s relevant to any pada sahitya with Sringara. The parakeeya has a component of secrecy to her — she may very well be a Kanya (underneath the guardianship of her mother and father) or a Parodha (married lady). The Krishna Bhakti poets of the East and the next Hindi Bhakti poets have celebrated the Parakeeya Abhisarika nayika as the very best type of devotion — Radha going out to fulfill Krishna or getting him to go to her, and the gopis dropping all chores once they hear Krishna’s flute, are prime examples. This philosophy is called the Parakeeya Vada.
Kamasutra categorised nayika in accordance with the lady’s magnificence, sexual capabilities, compatibility between husband and spouse, and so forth. “All these facets have been an integral a part of society. The celebration of courtesans and sexuality proves that the business of eroticism was a part of society. There was no judgment of these items being improper. The concept of compatibility, love-making and the love between man and lady — nothing was improper with these. Not that the society was debauched. It had a stability of the 4 purusharthas — Dharma (responsibility), Artha (materials wealth), Kama (pleasure) and Moksha (liberation),” mentioned Anupama.
Age and maturity
The Sweeya nayika was additional categorised in accordance with age and maturity — Mugdha (11-13), Madhya (early twenties) and Prouda/Pragalba (mature, assured). There’s additional classification of the Mugdha nayika in accordance with her state of consciousness of youth and one other in accordance with the extent of consolation together with her husband. Anupama cited an instance of an un-awakened younger woman from Rasa Manjari — “Rising from the water, the moon-faced nayika involves the financial institution and errors her broad eyes for 2 full blown lotuses caught to her ears, and tries to brush them away!”
The Sweeya nayika, notably the Madhya and Pragalba nayika, perhaps categorised in accordance with her behaviour — Dheera (self-controlled), Adheera (who lacks self-control) and Dheeraadheera (one who’s partially self-controlled). It will decide her behaviour, for instance, when she senses one other lady — a Madhyadheera nayika could specific her anger on the erring lover with sarcastic phrases. Anupama quoted from Rasa Manjari for a sarcastic Madhyadheera — ‘You’ve gotten been sweating profusely when you have been transferring round within the bower flocked by swarming and agitated bees. How I want to fan your physique gently with a lotus leaf!’ A Madhyaadheera nayika will use harsh phrases whereas a Madhyadheeraadheera would cry, sigh or be sarcastic. A Pragalbadheera nayika could deny entry, a Pragalba-adheera nayika could also be impolite and non-cooperative, a Pragalba-dheeraadheera nayika could hit her husband in anger (Anupama talked about an occasion of Satyabhama kicking Krishna).
Sweeya additionally has a Jyeshta (extra beloved) and Kanishta (lesser beloved) classification. An instance could be Kaikeyi, who was the extra beloved amongst King Dasarata’s wives.
The Parakeeya nayika may very well be categorised in accordance with her maturity — Kanya (one who’s underneath the guardianship of her father and harbours a secret love) and Parodha (a married lady who harbours a secret love for an additional man).
Solely Sringara Manjari has categorised the Samanya nayika — Swatantra (free), Jananyadheena (underneath the management of the mom), Niyamita (courtesan assigned to at least one particular person — king, zamindar, wealthy man), Klptanuraga (who loves just one), Kalpitanuraga (one who pretends attachment to a person for monetary acquire).
Anupama peppered the presentation with many examples from literature — one was for the Virahotkhandita avastha (struggling in separation). She quoted Sakuntala’s good friend in ‘Abhijnanasakuntalam’ — ‘When the moon is hidden, the identical night time, the lotus’s magnificence is just a matter of remembrance. Absolutely the sorrow of a younger woman may be very arduous to bear (when the nayika is separated from the nayaka for someday).’ One other was a Kshetrayya padam, ‘Enta chakkani vaade na saami’ — as a Mugdha, the nayika will probably be shy and hesitant, whereas a Proudha will overtly and proudly describe him.
The dancer-scholar urged dancers to learn extra, notably regional texts. For a padam, she mentioned, ‘Learn the textual content, learn every little thing round it after which return to the textual content. For those who create abhinaya for the subtext, the textual content will unravel by itself. Abhinaya will not be solely about telling a narrative. It’s about creating a number of layers of images the place the poet’s philosophy and ideation introduced out.’